Youth Forward scholarship 2016 – Essay

Name: Jianxing
From: brooklyn, ny
Grade: 12
School: NUHS
Votes: 0

Mr.
Fitzgerald

US
History

 

The
“Big Ideas of US History” List

Unit
1 – Constitutional Foundations (1607-1787)

  1. From Colonies to Independence

    • Taxation without
      Representation”

    • Declaration of Independence

      1. States purpose for Revolution

      2. Purpose of Government is to meet
        the needs of the Governed

    • American Revolution

  2. Articles of Confederation

    • Failed because the Fed Gov was too
      weak

    • Shay’s rebellion

  3. US Constitution

    • Constitutional Convention 1787

    • System of Federalism – Federal &
      States Govs

    • 3 Branches of Gov – Checks &
      Balances

    • Great Compromise

      1. settled issues of Representation

      2. Created a bicameral Congress

    • Unwritten Constitution” –
      practices of Gov
      not
      in Constitution

    • Ratification leads to Conflict
      between Federalists & Anti-Federalists

      1. Bill of Rights – protect
        individuals freedoms

Unit
2 – The Constitution Tested (1789-1896)

  1. Launching a New Nation

    • Washington’s Farewell Address –
      Neutrality

    • Hamilton v Jefferson – Political
      Parties created

    • Marshall Court –

      1. Court decisions that Strengthened
        Fed Gov

      2. Established Judicial Review

    • Westward Expansion – New
      Territory & Increased Sectionalism

  2. The Civil War

    • Begins with Southern secession
      after Lincoln’s election

    • Emancipation Proclamation –

      1. Frees Southern Slaves

      2. War is now anti-slavery action

    • North wins dues to larger
      population & more resources

  3. Reconstruction

    • 13th
      Amendment (abolished Slavery) & 14
      th
      Amendments (equal protection under law)

  4. Post Reconstruction
    Discrimination

    • Jim Crow laws passed in South

    • Plessey v Ferguson (1896)

      1. Separate is Equal”

Unit 3 – The Rise of Industry
(1865-1900)

  1. Westward Expansion

    • Construction of Transcontinental
      Railroad

    • Native Americans forced onto
      Reservations

      1. Dawes Act (1887) –
        Americanization

  2. Rise of American Industry

    • Access to Western Resources &
      markets

    • New Forms of business –
      corporations
      allow for creation of large companies

    • Large/inexpensive labor force
      (immigrants & native born)

    • Business tactics of Rockefeller,
      Vanderbilt, & Carnegie lead to the creation of Monopolies
      (trusts)

  3. Rise of Labor

    • Attempted to improve working
      conditions/workers rights & pay

    • Samuel Gompers – Founded the
      American Federation of Labor (AFL)

  4. Growth of Cities

    • Migration of people searching for
      work to cities (Immigrants & Americans)

    • Urbanization occurs too quickly =
      poor living conditions

Unit
4 – The Progressive Era (1890-1920)

  1. The Populist Party/Movement

    • Began as Farmers fought back
      against Railroads

    • Proposals served as foundation of
      Progressive Movement

  2. The Progressive Movement

    • Sought to bring about Social,
      Political & Economic changes

    • Goals:

      1. End Political Corruption

      2. Curb actions of big businesses
        (monopolies)

      3. Remedy social problems

    • Muckrakers – Jacob Riis, Upton
      Sinclair

  3. Women’s Suffrage

    • Began with Seneca Falls Convention
      (1848)

    • Organized to seek the right to
      vote as means to equality

    • 19th
      Amendment adopted in 1920

  4. American Foreign Policy

    • 1898: American – Spanish War
      (yellow journalism)

    • American acts as Imperial power in
      Latin America & Pacific Ocean

    • Attacks on shipping & the
      Zimmerman Note draw US into World War 1

    • Treaty of Versailles rejected by
      Congress

Unit
5 – Prosperity & Depression (1920-1939)

  1. The “Roaring” 20’s

    • Mass consumerism (& new debt),
      new technology (automobile)

    • New Cultural values (role of
      Women, Scopes trail, prohibition, Harlem Renaissance)

    • Farmers suffered economic
      hardships

  1. The Great Depression

    • Overproduction, Speculation,
      excessive debt sets stage for Depression

    • Stock Market Crash – 1929

    • Banks fail, business went
      bankrupt, millions out of work

    • Pres. Hoover – not the role of
      gov to help out

  2. The New Deal

    • FDR introduced policies of Relief,
      Recovery & Reform (New Deal)

    • Includes Social Security

    • New Deal changes role of Gov &
      increases its size/influence

Unit
6 – WW2 & its Aftermath (1931-1960)

  1. American Isolationism

    • US seeks to avoid involvement in
      growing international conflict

  2. US in WW2

    • US enters after attack on Pearl
      harbor

    • War ends with dropping of Atomic
      Bombs

    • Domestic impacts: Japanese
      internment & opportunities for African Americans & Women

  3. The Cold War

    • Intense/Hostile rivalry between US
      & USSR

    • Truman Doctrine/Marshall Plan =
      “Contain” the spread of Communism

    • Domestic impact: Red
      Scare/McCarthyism

    • Birth of the Space Race

Unit
7 – America in Uncertain Times (1945-1975)

  1. Post WW2 Suburbanization

    • Levittown = White Middle
      Class/Conformity

  2. Post War Presidents

    • Eisenhower

      1. increased military spending to
        fight Cold War

      2. Built Interstate Highway system

    • Johnson

      1. Great Society = attempts to end
        poverty & racial inequality

  3. Civil Rights Movement

    • African Americans move to end
      racial inequality

    • Brown V Board of Education (1954)
      – Segregation is unconstitutional

    • MLK – Minister who preached
      non-violence

      1. Rosa Parks – Montgomery Bus
        Boycott

    • Civil Rights Act of 1964 –
      prohibited discrimination based on color

    • MLK assassinated in 1968

    • Success of movement inspired other
      movements

  4. The 1960’s

    • Warren Court increased protections
      for individual rights

    • Feminist Movement demands greater
      equality

    • Caesar Chavez works for Latino
      rights

    • Counter-Culture movement – new
      music/lifestyle that rejects conformity

  5. The Vietnam War (1965-1973)

    • Domino Theory leads to action to
      ‘contain’ Communism in SE Asia

    • Failed attempt to defend South
      Vietnam from Communist expansion

    • War created huge divisions in US
      Society

Unit
8 – Moving towards a New Century (1969-Today)

  1. Presidency in Crises

    • Nixon:

      1. Foreign Policy

        1. failure in Vietnam

        2. Détente – cooling of tensions
          with Communist nations

      2. Domestic Events

        1. Watergate Scandal – Nixon
          Resigns after cover up

        2. Checks & Balances – no
          president is above the law

    • Carter & Ford – Economic
      crises rock nation

  2. New Conservatism

    • Ronald Reagan

      1. Pushes conservative agenda

        1. attempts to reverse the growing
          size of Federal Gov responsibilities & deficit

    • Reaganomics – Cut taxes,
      increased Military spending

      1. Restored prosperity but increased
        national debt

  3. Clinton & Bush

    • Clinton – prosperity continues,
      affair leads to impeachment, Internet emerges

    • Bush – 9/11 attacks lead to wars
      in Afghanistan, Iraq & “War on Terror”


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