Youth Forward Scholarship 2017 – pressure ulcers

Name: Shaniya Dawn Cook
From: pocatello, idaho
Grade: freshman
School: idaho state university
Votes: 0


I’m
going into the RN program so I chose a video to show the procedure
they use to dress a pressure ulcer. I chose this because in the
nursing field pressure ulcers are one of the leading causes of death.
I found a couple videos to show this. The first video shows how they
dress several types of pressure ulcers and the second is a video of a
patient with a very serious pressure ulcer on their hip.

Pressure
sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for
too long. They commonly form where your bones are close to your skin,
such as your ankles, back, elbows, heels and hips. You are at risk if
you are bedridden, use a wheelchair, or are unable to change your
position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which
are life-threatening. They can be a problem for people in nursing
homes.

There
are 4 stages to pressure ulcers and several treatment options
available that I will be listing.

Stage
1

sores are not open wounds. The skin may be painful, but it has no
breaks or tears. The skin appears reddened and does not blanch (lose
color briefly when you press your finger on it and then remove your
finger). In a dark-skinned person, the area may appear to be an
unusual color than the surrounding skin, but it may not look red.
Skin temperature is often warmer. And the stage 1 sore can feel
either firmer or softer than the area around it. At
stage
2
,
the skin breaks open, wears away, or forms an ulcer, which is usually
tender and painful. The sore expands into deeper layers of the skin.
It can look like a scrape (abrasion), blister,
or a shallow crater in the skin. Sometimes this stage looks like a
blister
filled with clear fluid. At this stage, some skin may be damaged
beyond repair or may die. During
stage
3
,
the sore gets worse and extends into the tissue beneath the skin,
forming a small crater. Fat may show in the sore, but not muscle,
tendon, or bone. At
stage
4
,
the pressure sore is very deep, reaching into muscle and bone and
causing extensive damage. Damage to deeper tissues, tendons, and
joints may occur.

There
are three treatment steps; irrigation, dressing and Negative pressure
wound therapy.

The
first step is wound irrigation, which is an
irrigating
catheter or syringe and saline may be used to flush the ulcer free of
debris. Wound cleansers may also be used to loosen up and clean out
debris. The amount of pressure used during irrigation should be
enough to clean the wound without damaging it further. The second
step is to add moisture to the infected area to prevent it from
drying out and allowing the infection to stay and grow. Also,
maintaining a clean, moist wound bed is essential for promoting
healing. Certain dressings help keep ulcers moist. Be sure to fill
spaces loosely with dressings to prevent fluid and bacteria from
building up. Hydrogels can also help retain moisture. The last step
is to Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT)—also called
vacuum-assisted closure—removes exudate, helps reduce bacterial
growth, and promotes blood flow and granulation formation. First, a
foam dressing is placed in the wound and the wound is covered with an
occlusive dressing. Then tubing is attached to a pump, which creates
subatmospheric pressure in the wound.

There
are several dressings for pressure ulcers. Moist gauze helps keep the
wound moist and absorbs excess fluid. Gauze should be damp—not
wet—with saline. Too-wet gauze can weaken surrounding tissue.
Transparent films are thin and flexible and help protect wounds from
water and bacteria. Hydrocolloids absorb exudate, forming a
nonadhesive gel. This helps maintain a moist wound environment.
Hydrocolloids also protect the wound from water and bacteria.
Hydrogels are water-based gels and dressing sheets that keep wounds
moist. They are also soothing and can help ease pain. Alginates are
highly absorptive dressings made from seaweed. When combined with
wound exudate the dressing may form a gel that helps maintain a moist
wound bed. Foams absorb exudate and keep the wound moist. They are
used to cover or fill wounds. Collagens absorb exudate and help
maintain a moist wound environment. They may also promote new tissue
growth. Antimicrobials help prevent and treat infection. These
dressings come in many forms.

-Shan
Cook

Video
#1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_sRHSJsr1U&t=100s

Video
#2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=atPgw1I9s6c


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